As cities around the world continue to grow, the need for parking becomes an integral part of new commercial and municipal building plans. Many building designers are finding ways to offer adequate parking in a limited amount of real estate. Two emerging trends to do so are enclosed parking garages and mixed-use parking garages. Both of these designs seek to offer users a comfortable way to park their vehicles, all while being near their final destination. This means that the parking facility and the commercial or residential buildings are not separated, but are integrated together into one building structure. Due to this integration, two major concerns arise. How do we ventilate the harmful exhaust from the vehicles while being so close to the populated areas of the building, which require clean air and how do we accomplish this in the most energy efficient way possible? The Dwyer® Series GSTA carbon monoxide/nitrogen dioxide gas transmitters offer the sensory inputs necessary for any building automation system to answer this very quandary in an efficient and low cost manner. Continue reading “Parking Garage Ventilation Control”
Educational facilities, or public and private institutions devoted to teaching students, differ in physical size and level of education programs. These institutions can range from preschool to university levels, all of which need proper heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and indoor air quality.
Commercial Refrigeration Thermostats Go Digital for Greater Control In the past, bulb and capillary mechanical thermostats were used in chillers to maintain proper water temperature. As technology has advanced, digital temperature switches have replaced many mechanical ones because a digital temperature switch provides the same functions while also serving as a timer, external relay and thermometer. Where are digital temperature switches used, and which features have caused the conversion? Continue reading “Digital Chiller Thermostats”
High duct-static pressure creates problems during a building fire when fire dampers close. Closed fire dampers cause downstream duct sensors to detect a drop in pressure. The duct pressure sensors in turn send signals to crank the air handler even faster to get back up to normal operation. Because the fire dampers are closed, when the air handler ramps up, the duct pressure upstream of the fire dampers will increase to a point where a high static pressure switch will cut power to the VFD (variable frequency drive) and send a signal to the DDC (direct digital control). Switches in this application — by specification — are all manual reset and require two outputs: one for cutting power to the VFD and one for sending the signal to the DDC.
Energy costs are rising around the world. In the United States, the cost of electricity, natural gas, and coal are all expected to increase in 2020. As oil prices increase, energy costs are rising in Britain, and in Australia, the cost of electricity has skyrocketed. It will become increasingly necessary to manage costs by maintaining efficient operation of energy systems as energy prices continue to rise.
Steam is a common byproduct of energy generation in boiler systems. When energy is generated in a boiler system, heat energy is transferred to water, which generates steam used for heating. Measuring the steam produced by a boiler is the most logical way to measure boiler output, but it is extremely difficult to measure steam output accurately. In a world where energy costs are only expected to increase, it is imperative that boiler output be measured accurately in order to conserve both money and energy. Continue reading “Gas Mass Measurement”