Ultrasonic flowmeters use sound waves to determine the velocity of a fluid flowing in a pipe. At no flow conditions, the frequencies of an ultrasonic wave transmitted into a pipe and its reflections from the fluid are the same. Under flowing conditions, the frequency of the reflected wave is different due to the Doppler effect. When the fluid moves faster, the frequency shift increases linearly. The transmitter processes signals from the transmitted wave and its reflections to determine the flow rate. Continue reading “How Ultrasonic Flowmeters Work”
A semiconductor transistor is a part with specific electronic properties that allow it to serve as a component in microchips and modern electronics like phones, laptops, and more. As these components are small and require precise manufacturing methods, there are facilities dedicated to their manufacture.
These facilities consist of several levels including air handlers and scrubbers for exhaust, HEPA room, fab cleanroom, and subfab areas. The control of pressure, flow, and temperature within the facility is essential.
Semiconductor subfabs are located directly below the cleanroom. Here you will find an array of ancillary equipment, such as vacuum pumps, abatement systems, chillers, gas cabinets, and other equipment to keep process tools functioning efficiently. The equipment within the subfab is interconnected with the tools found within the fab cleanroom itself; these separate but connected areas work together to make sure the facility runs smoothly. Continue reading “Monitoring Solutions for Semiconductor Subfabs”
Differential pressure between two rooms prevents dust, particulates, and pathogens from entering or exiting one room and going into the other. Depending on the relationship between rooms, one room will be under positive pressure when referenced against the other. This positive-negative pressure relationship between two spaces is the main idea behind clean rooms and isolation rooms. To ensure the differential pressure relationship is maintained, a measuring device must be used.
Room pressure monitors and room status monitors measure, display, and transmit the differential pressure reading between two rooms. In general, room pressure monitors only monitor differential pressure. On the other hand, room status monitors monitor differential pressure and additional parameters such as relative humidity, temperature, air change, or door status. They are both used in critical applications that require critical low differential pressure relationships. Continue reading “What are Room Pressure and Room Status Monitors?”
What is parallax error?
Parallax error is when the pointer of a device looks like it’s at a different reading when read to the side compared to when read face-on. This is caused by the distance between the scale and the pointer. Because they’re not on the same plane, readings may not appear accurate when viewed at an angle. Continue reading “What is parallax error and how can I avoid it?”
If you work with hazardous substances in your job, one of the first things you probably learned besides “Where’s the bathroom?” and “Where is my workstation?” is the location of the emergency safety shower and eyewash station. These emergency areas are vital to keeping workplace injuries to a minimum in laboratories and other hazardous areas. Continue reading “Flow Monitoring in Emergency Safety Shower and Eyewash Stations”